Disco Disco Inhaltsverzeichnis
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The scene was centered on discotheques , nightclubs , and private loft parties. In the late '70s, " Studio 54 " in New York City was arguably the most well known nightclub in the world.
This club played a major formative role in the growth of disco music and nightclub culture in general. It was operated by Steve Rubell and Ian Schrager and was notorious for the hedonism that went on within; the balconies were known for sexual encounters , and drug use was rampant.
Its dance floor was decorated with an image of the " Man in the Moon " that included an animated cocaine spoon. The " Copacabana ", another New York nightclub dating to the s, had a revival in the late s when it embraced disco; it would become the setting of a Barry Manilow song of the same name.
In Washington, D. Powerful, bass-heavy, hi-fi sound systems were viewed as a key part of the disco club experience.
Typical lighting designs for disco dance floors could include multi-coloured lights that swirl around or flash to the beat, strobe light , an illuminated dance floor and a mirror ball.
Disco-era disc jockeys DJs would often remix existing songs using reel-to-reel tape machines , and add in percussion breaks, new sections, and new sounds.
DJs would select songs and grooves according to what the dancers wanted, transitioning from one song to another with a DJ mixer and using a microphone to introduce songs and speak to the audiences.
Other equipment was added to the basic DJ setup, providing unique sound manipulations, such as reverb , equalization, and echo effects unit.
Using this equipment, a DJ could do effects such as cutting out all but the bassline of a song and then slowly mixing in the beginning of another song using the DJ mixer's crossfader.
Notable U. Some DJs were also record producers who created and produced disco songs in the recording studio. Larry Levan, for example, was a prolific record producer as well as a DJ.
Because record sales were often dependent on dance floor play by DJs in leading nightclubs, DJs were also influential for the development and popularization of certain types of disco music being produced for record labels.
In the early years, dancers in discos danced in a "hang loose" or "freestyle" approach. At first, many dancers improvised their own dance styles and dance steps.
Later in the disco era, popular dance styles were developed, including the "Bump", "Penguin", "Boogaloo", "Watergate" and "Robot". By October the Hustle reigned.
It was highly stylized, sophisticated and overtly sexual. During the disco era, many nightclubs would commonly host disco dance competitions or offer free dance lessons.
Some cities had disco dance instructors or dance schools, which taught people how to do popular disco dances such as "touch dancing" , "the hustle" , and " the cha cha ".
The pioneer of disco dance instruction was Karen Lustgarten in San Francisco in Her book The Complete Guide to Disco Dancing Warner Books was the first to name, break down and codify popular disco dances as dance forms and distinguish between disco freestyle, partner and line dances.
The dynamic dance duo of Robin and Reggie led the show. The pair spent the week teaching disco dancing to dancers in the disco clubs. The instructional show which aired on Saturday mornings had a following of dancers who would stay up all night on Fridays so they could be on the set the next morning, ready to return to the disco on Saturday night knowing with the latest personalized dance steps.
The producers of the show, John Reid and Greg Roselli, routinely made appearances at disco functions with Robin and Reggie to scout out new dancing talent and promote upcoming events such as "Disco Night at White Sox Park".
Some notable professional dance troupes of the s included Pan's People and Hot Gossip. For many dancers, a key source of inspiration for s disco dancing was the film Saturday Night Fever Interest in disco dancing also helped spawn dance competition TV shows such as Dance Fever Disco fashions were very trendy in the late s.
Some women would wear sheer, flowing dresses, such as Halston dresses or loose, flared pants. Other women wore tight, revealing, sexy clothes, such as backless halter tops , disco pants , "hot pants" or body-hugging spandex bodywear or "catsuits".
Men often wore Pierre Cardin suits, three piece suits with a vest and double-knit polyester shirt jackets with matching trousers known as the leisure suit.
Men's leisure suits were typically form-fitted in some parts of the body, such as the waist and bottom, but the lower part of the pants were flared in a bell bottom style, to permit freedom of movement.
During the disco era, men engaged in elaborate grooming rituals and spent time choosing fashion clothing, both activities that would have been considered "feminine" according to the gender stereotypes of the era.
Platform shoes and boots for both genders and high heels for women were popular footwear. Less commonly, some disco dancers wore outlandish costumes, dressed in drag , covered their bodies with gold or silver paint, or wore very skimpy outfits leaving them nearly nude; these uncommon get-ups were more likely to be seen at invitation-only New York City loft parties and disco clubs.
In addition to the dance and fashion aspects of the disco club scene, there was also a thriving club drug subculture , particularly for drugs that would enhance the experience of dancing to the loud, bass-heavy music and the flashing colored lights, such as cocaine  nicknamed "blow" , amyl nitrite " poppers " ,  and the " Paul Gootenberg states that "[t]he relationship of cocaine to s disco culture cannot be stressed enough While the dance floor was the central arena of seduction , actual sex usually took place in the nether regions of the disco: bathroom stalls, exit stairwells , and so on.
In other cases the disco became a kind of 'main course' in a hedonist's menu for a night out. In his paper, "In Defense of Disco" , Richard Dyer claims eroticism as one of the three main characteristics of disco.
By describing the music, drugs and liberated mentality as a trifecta coming together to create the festival of carnality, Brewster and Broughton are inciting all three as stimuli for the dancing, sex and other embodied movements that contributed to the corporeal vibrations within the Sanctuary.
This supports the argument that the disco music took a role in facilitating this sexual liberation that was experienced in the discotheques.
Further, this coupled with the recent legalization of abortions, the introduction of antibiotics and the pill all facilitated a culture shift around sex from one of procreation to pleasure and enjoyment fostering a very sex positive framework around discotheques.
Further, in addition to gay sex being illegal in New York state, until the American Psychiatric Association classified homosexuality as an illness.
Disco was mostly developed from music that was popular on the dance floor in clubs that started playing records instead of having a live band.
The first discotheques mostly played swing music. Later on uptempo rhythm and blues became popular in American clubs and northern soul and glam rock records in the UK.
In the early s nightclubs in Paris resorted to playing jazz records during the Nazi occupation. She installed a dance floor with coloured lights and two turntables so she could play records without having a gap in the music.
In October the owner of the Scotch Club in Aachen, West Germany chose to install a record player for the opening night instead of hiring a live band.
The patrons were unimpressed until a young reporter, who happened to be covering the opening of the club, impulsively took control of the record player and introduced the records that he chose to play.
Klaus Quirini later claimed to thus have been the world's first nightclub DJ. Discotheque dancing became a European trend that was enthusiastically picked up by the American press.
The birth of disco is often claimed to be found in the private dance parties held by New York City DJ David Mancuso's home that became known as The Loft , an invitation-only non-commercial underground club that inspired many others.
After some months the parties became weekly events and Mancuso continued to give regular parties into the s.
In the s, the key counterculture of the s , the hippie movement, was fading away. The economic prosperity of the previous decade had declined, and unemployment, inflation and crime rates had soared.
Political issues like the backlash from the Civil Rights Movement culminating in the form of race riots, the Vietnam War, the assassinations of Dr. Martin Luther King and John F.
Kennedy and the Watergate scandal left many feeling disillusioned and hopeless. Disco music and disco dancing provided an escape from negative social and economic issues.
In Beautiful Things in Popular Culture , Simon Frith highlights the sociability of disco and its roots in s counterculture.
When Mancuso threw his first informal house parties, the gay community which made up much of The Loft's attendee roster was often harassed in the gay bars and dance clubs , with many gay men carrying bail money with them to gay bars.
But at The Loft and many other early, private discotheques , they could dance together without fear of police action thanks to Mancuso's underground, yet legal, policies.
Vince Aletti described it "like going to party, completely mixed, racially and sexually, where there wasn't any sense of someone being more important than anyone else," and Alex Rosner reiterated this saying "It was probably about sixty percent black and seventy percent gay There was a mix of sexual orientation, there was a mix of races, mix of economic groups.
A real mix, where the common denominator was music. Film critic Roger Ebert called the popular embrace of disco's exuberant dance moves an escape from "the general depression and drabness of the political and musical atmosphere of the late seventies.
Pauline Kael , writing about the disco-themed film Saturday Night Fever , said the film and disco itself touched on "something deeply romantic, the need to move, to dance, and the need to be who you'd like to be.
Nirvana is the dance; when the music stops, you return to being ordinary. During the s, when the discotheque culture from Europe became popular in the United States, several music genres with dance-able rhythms rose to popularity and evolved into different sub-genres: rhythm and blues originated in the s , soul late s and s , funk mids and go-go mids and s; more than "disco", the word "go-go" originally indicated a music club.
Those genres, mainly African-American ones, would influence much of early disco music. During the 60s, the Motown record label developed a popular and influential own sound , described as having "1 simply structured songs with sophisticated melodies and chord changes, 2 a relentless four-beat drum pattern, 3 a gospel use of background voices, vaguely derived from the style of the Impressions, 4 a regular and sophisticated use of both horns and strings, 5 lead singers who were half way between pop and gospel music, 6 a group of accompanying musicians who were among the most dextrous, knowledgeable, and brilliant in all of popular music Motown bassists have long been the envy of white rock bassists [ citation needed ] and 7 a trebly style of mixing that relied heavily on electronic limiting and equalizing boosting the high range frequencies to give the overall product a distinctive sound, particularly effective for broadcast over AM radio.
In the mids and early s Philadelphia soul and New York soul developed as sub-genres that also had lavish percussion , lush string orchestra arrangements and expensive record production processes.
At the end of the s musicians and audiences from the Black, Italian and Latino communities adopted several traits from the hippie and psychedelia subcultures.
They included using music venues with a loud, overwhelming sound, free-form dancing, trippy lighting, colorful costumes, and the use of hallucinogenic drugs.
The long instrumental introductions and detailed orchestration found in psychedelic soul tracks by the Temptations are also considered as cinematic soul.
In the early s, Curtis Mayfield and Isaac Hayes scored hits with cinematic soul songs that were actually composed for movie soundtracks: " Superfly " and " Theme from Shaft " The latter is sometimes regarded as an early disco song.
Psychedelic soul influenced proto-disco acts such as Willie Hutch and Philadelphia soul. In the early s, the Philadelphia soul productions by Gamble and Huff evolved from the simpler arrangements of the lates into a style featuring lush strings, thumping basslines, and sliding hi-hat rhythms.
These elements would become typical for disco music and are found in several of the hits they produced in the early s:.
Other early disco tracks that helped shape disco and became popular on the dance floors of underground discotheque clubs and parties include:.
The genre was also shaped by Tom Moulton , who wanted to extend the enjoyment of dance songs — thus creating the extended mix or " remix ", going from a three-minute 45 rpm single to the much longer 12" record.
Frankie Knuckles was not only an important disco DJ; he also helped to develop house music in the s. From around the production of the Temptations' album Cloud Nine in he incorporated some psychedelic influences and started to produce longer tracks, with more room for elaborate rhythmic instrumental parts.
A clear example of such a long psychedelic soul track is " Papa Was a Rollin' Stone ", which appeared as a single edit of almost seven minutes and an approximately minute-long 12" version.
By the early 70s, many of his productions had evolved more and more towards funk and disco, as heard on albums by the Undisputed Truth and the album G.
After he left Motown in he produced some more disco hits, including " Car Wash " by Rose Royce. In the late s, uptempo soul with heavy beats and some associated dance styles and fashion were picked up in the British mod scene and formed the northern soul movement.
As the favoured beat became more uptempo and frantic in the early s, northern soul dancing became more athletic, somewhat resembling the later dance styles of disco and break dancing.
In there were an estimated 25, mobile discos and 40, professional disc jockeys in the United Kingdom. Mobile discos were hired deejays that brought their own equipment to provide music for special events.
Glam rock tracks were popular, with for example Gary Glitter 's single " Rock and Roll Part 2 " becoming popular on UK dance floors while it did not get any radio airplay.
From to , disco music continued to increase in popularity as many disco songs topped the charts. The Hues Corporation 's " Rock the Boat ", a US number-one single and million-seller, was another one of the early disco songs to reach number one.
The same year saw the release of " Kung Fu Fighting ", performed by Carl Douglas and produced by Biddu , which reached number one in both the UK and US, and became the best-selling single of the year  and one of the best-selling singles of all time with 11 million records sold worldwide,   helping to popularize disco to a great extent.
In the northwestern sections of the United Kingdom, the northern soul explosion, which started in the late s and peaked in , made the region receptive to disco, which the region's disc jockeys were bringing back from New York City.
The shift by some DJs to the newer sounds coming from the U. Later in , Gaynor's number-one disco song was " I Will Survive ", which was seen as a symbol of female strength and a gay anthem,  like her further disco hit, a remake of " I Am What I Am "; in she released " Let Me Know I Have a Right ", a single which gained popularity in the civil rights movements.
Also in , Vincent Montana Jr. Formed by Harry Wayne Casey a. In this period, rock bands like the English Electric Light Orchestra featured in their songs a violin sound that became a staple of disco music, as in the hit " Evil Woman ", although the genre was correctly described as orchestral rock.
In s Munich, West Germany , music producers Giorgio Moroder and Pete Bellotte made a decisive contribution to disco music with a string of hits for Donna Summer, which became known as the "Munich Sound".
The final product, which contained a series of simulated orgasms , initially was not intended for release, but when Moroder played it in the clubs it caused a sensation and he released it.
The song became an international hit, reaching the charts in many European countries and the US No. It has been described as the arrival of the expression of raw female sexual desire in pop music.
A minute inch single was released. The 12" single became and remains a standard in discos today. Other disco producers such as Tom Moulton took ideas and techniques from dub music which came with the increased Jamaican migration to New York City in the s to provide alternatives to the "four on the floor" style that dominated.
DJ Larry Levan utilized styles from dub and jazz and remixing techniques to create early versions of house music that sparked the genre.
In December , the film Saturday Night Fever was released. It was a huge success and its soundtrack became one of the best-selling albums of all time.
The idea for the film was sparked by a New York magazine  article titled " Tribal Rites of the New Saturday Night " which supposedly chronicled the disco culture in mids New York City, but was later revealed to have been fabricated.
The recording, which was included as part of the "MacArthur Park Suite" on her double live album Live and More , was eight minutes and 40 seconds long on the album.
The shorter seven-inch vinyl single version of MacArthur Park was Summer's first single to reach number one on the Hot ; it does not include the balladic second movement of the song, however.
A remix of "MacArthur Park" by Summer topped the Billboard Dance Charts marking five consecutive decades with a number-one song on the charts.
The band Chic was formed mainly by guitarist Nile Rodgers —a self-described "street hippie" from late s New York—and bassist Bernard Edwards.
Other successful songs by Chic include the often-sampled " Good Times " and " Everybody Dance " The group regarded themselves as the disco movement's rock band that made good on the hippie movement's ideals of peace, love, and freedom.
Every song they wrote was written with an eye toward giving it "deep hidden meaning" or D. Sylvester , a flamboyant and openly gay singer famous for his soaring falsetto voice, scored his biggest disco hit in late with " You Make Me Feel Mighty Real ".
His singing style was said to have influenced the singer Prince. At that time, disco was one of the forms of music most open to gay performers.
They were known for their onstage costumes of typically male-associated jobs and ethnic minorities and achieved mainstream success with their hit song " Macho Man ".
Other songs include " Y. At the height of its popularity, many non-disco artists recorded songs with disco elements, such as Rod Stewart with his " Da Ya Think I'm Sexy?
Progressive rock group Pink Floyd used disco-like drums and guitar in their song " Another Brick in the Wall, Part 2 " ,  which became their only number-one single in both the US and UK.
Geils Band with " Come Back " The disco sound was also adopted by "non-pop" artists, including the U. Easy listening icon Percy Faith , in one of his last recordings, released an album entitled Disco Party and recorded a disco version of his " Theme from A Summer Place " in Classical music was even adapted for disco, notably Walter Murphy 's "A Fifth of Beethoven" , based on the first movement of Beethoven 's 5th Symphony and "Flight 76" , based on Rimsky-Korsakov 's " Flight of the Bumblebee " , and Louis Clark 's Hooked On Classics series of albums and singles.
Other examples include S. Several parodies of the disco style were created. Rick Dees , at the time a radio DJ in Memphis, Tennessee , recorded " Disco Duck " and "Dis-Gorilla" ; Frank Zappa parodied the lifestyles of disco dancers in " Disco Boy " on his Zoot Allures album, and in " Dancin' Fool " on his Sheik Yerbouti album; "Weird Al" Yankovic 's eponymous debut album includes a disco song called "Gotta Boogie", an extended pun on the similarity of the disco move to the American slang word " booger ".
Comedian Bill Cosby devoted his entire album Disco Bill to disco parodies. In , Mad Magazine released a flexi-disc titled Mad Disco featuring six full-length parodies of the genre.
By the end of the s, a strong anti-disco sentiment developed among rock music fans and musicians, particularly in the United States.
Rock artists such as Rod Stewart and David Bowie who added disco elements to their music were accused of being sell-outs.
The punk subculture in the United States and United Kingdom was often hostile to disco,  although in the UK, many early Sex Pistols fans such as the Bromley Contingent and Jordan quite liked disco, often congregating at nightclubs such as Louise's in Soho and the Sombrero in Kensington.
The track " Love Hangover " by Diana Ross , the house anthem at the former, was cited as a particular favourite by many early UK punks.
Jello Biafra of the Dead Kennedys , in the song "Saturday Night Holocaust", likened disco to the cabaret culture of Weimar -era Germany for its apathy towards government policies and its escapism.
Mark Mothersbaugh of Devo said that disco was "like a beautiful woman with a great body and no brains", and a product of political apathy of that era.
Anti-disco sentiment was expressed in some television shows and films. In one scene of the comedy film Airplane! July 12, , became known as "the day disco died" because of the Disco Demolition Night , an anti-disco demonstration in a baseball double-header at Comiskey Park in Chicago.
As the second game was about to begin, the raucous crowd stormed onto the field and proceeded by setting fires , tearing out seats and pieces of turf, and other damage.
The Chicago Police Department made numerous arrests, and the extensive damage to the field forced the White Sox to forfeit the second game to the Detroit Tigers , who had won the first game.
Disco's decline in popularity after Disco Demolition Night was rapid. On July 21, , the top six records on the U. Dahl stated in a interview that disco was "probably on its way out [at the time].
But I think it [Disco Demolition Night] hastened its demise". The anti-disco movement, combined with other societal and radio industry factors, changed the face of pop radio in the years following Disco Demolition Night.
Starting in the s, country music began a slow rise in American main pop charts. Emblematic of country music's rise to mainstream popularity was the commercially successful movie Urban Cowboy.
The continued popularity of power pop and the revival of oldies in the late s was also related to disco's decline; the film Grease was emblematic of this trend.
Coincidentally, the star of both films was John Travolta , who in had starred in Saturday Night Fever , which remains one of the most iconic disco films of the era.
During this period of decline in disco's popularity, several record companies folded, were reorganized, or were sold. Midsong International Records ceased operations in Salsoul Records continues to exist in the s, but primarily is used as a reissue brand.
Many groups that were popular during the disco period subsequently struggled to maintain their success—even those that tried to adapt to evolving musical tastes.
The Bee Gees , for instance, had only one top entry 's " One " and three more top songs despite recording and releasing far more than that and completely abandoning disco in their s and s songs in the United States after the s, even though numerous songs they wrote and had other artists perform were successful.
Of the handful of groups not taken down by disco's fall from favor, Kool and the Gang , Donna Summer , the Jacksons —and Michael Jackson in particular—stand out: In spite of having helped define the disco sound early on,  they continued to make popular and danceable, if more refined, songs for yet another generation of music fans in the s and beyond.
Six months prior to the chaotic event in December , popular progressive rock radio station WDAI WLS-FM had suddenly switched to an all-disco format, disenfranchising thousands of Chicago rock fans and leaving Dahl unemployed.
The latter also helped bring the Chicago house genre to the airwaves. Factors that have been cited as leading to the decline of disco in the United States include economic and political changes at the end of the s, as well as burnout from the hedonistic lifestyles led by participants.
In January , rock critic Robert Christgau argued that homophobia , and most likely racism , were reasons behind the movement,  a conclusion seconded by John Rockwell.
Craig Werner wrote: "The Anti-disco movement represented an unholy alliance of funkateers and feminists , progressives and puritans , rockers and reactionaries.
Nonetheless, the attacks on disco gave respectable voice to the ugliest kinds of unacknowledged racism, sexism and homophobia. Some of these influences had already begun to emerge during the mids, at the height of disco's popularity.
During the first years of the s, the disco sound began to be phased out, and faster tempos and synthesized effects, accompanied by guitar and simplified backgrounds, moved dance music toward the funk and pop genres.
This trend can be seen in singer Billy Ocean 's recordings between and Whereas Ocean's song American Hearts was backed with an orchestral arrangement played by the Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra, his song "One of Those Nights Feel Like Gettin' Down " had a more bare, stripped-down sound, with no orchestration or symphonic arrangements.
This drift from the original disco sound is called post-disco which also included boogie and Italo disco. It had an important influence on early alternative dance and dance pop , and played a key role in the transition between disco and house music during the early s.
The post-punk movement that originated in the late s both supported punk rock 's rule breaking while rejecting its move back to raw rock music.
No wave was a subgenre of post-punk centered in New York City. In the early s the dance-punk new rave in the United Kingdom emerged as a part of a broader post punk revival.
It fused elements of punk-related rock with different forms of dance music including disco. House music is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago in the early s also see: Chicago house.
It quickly spread to other American cities such as Detroit, where it developed into the harder and more industrial techno , New York City also see: garage house and Newark — all of which developed their own regional scenes.
In the mid- to late s, house music became popular in Europe as well as major cities in South America, and Australia.
Since the early to mids, house music has been infused in mainstream pop and dance music worldwide. Early house music was generally dance-based music characterized by repetitive four on the floor beats, rhythms mainly provided by drum machines ,  off-beat hi-hat cymbals, and synthesized basslines.
While house displayed several characteristics similar to disco music, it was more electronic and minimalist,  and the repetitive rhythm of house was more important than the song itself.
As well, house did not use the lush string sections that were a key part of the disco sound. House music in the s, while keeping several of these core elements, notably the prominent kick drum on every beat, varies widely in style and influence, ranging from the soulful and atmospheric deep house to the more aggressive acid house or the minimalist microhouse.
House music has also fused with several other genres creating fusion subgenres,  such as euro house , tech house , electro house and jump house.
In the late s and early s, rave culture began to emerge from the house and acid house scene. Although disco culture started out underground, it eventually thrived in the mainstream by the late s, and major labels commodified and packaged the music for mass consumption.
In contrast, the rave culture started out underground and stayed mostly underground. In part this was to avoid the animosity that was still surrounding disco and dance music.
The rave scene also stayed underground to avoid law enforcement attention that was directed at the rave culture due to its use of secret, unauthorized warehouses for some dance events and its association with illegal club drugs like Ecstasy.
Nu-disco is a 21st-century dance music genre associated with the renewed interest in s and early s disco,  mids Italo disco, and the synthesizer-heavy Euro disco aesthetics.
It is also used to describe the music on several American labels that were previously associated with the genres electroclash and French house.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the music genre. For the entertainment venue, see nightclub. For other uses, see Disco disambiguation.
Singing electric guitar bass guitar keyboard synthesizer drums drum machine percussion instrument string section horn section orchestra.
Space disco nu-disco Hi-NRG. Philippines Europe Poland Italy. See also: Circuit parties. Carl Douglas — "Kung Fu Fighting" Blondie — "Heart of Glass" Blondie 's " Heart of Glass " combined disco with new wave music , utilizing a Roland CR drum machine.
See also: Legacy. Main article: Nu-disco. Main article: Euro disco. Donna Summer — "I Feel Love" Main article: Hip hop music.
Main articles: Post-disco and Electronic dance music. Main article: Post-punk. Main article: Dance-punk. Main article: House music. Main article: Rave.
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